What is electricity?

Electricity is the flow of electrical charge. It is a basic part of nature and one of our most widely used forms of energy. Every day, we use electricity to do many jobs for us from lighting and heating/cooling our homes, to powering our televisions and computers.

What is the difference between 3 phase and single-phase electricity?

A phase is the factional part of the period of a sinusoidal wave, usually expressed in electrical degrees. A single-phase circuit is an alternating-current using only one, sine wave type, current flow. A three-phase circuit consists of three different sine wave current flows, different in phase by 120 degrees from each other. Now let's have the more practical, "down to earth" definition - something that the average homeowner would at least have a chance of understanding: Single phase: a circuit that consists of three wires � live, neutral, and ground (earth). The main breaker in a single phase system is a single pole breaker, resembling the others in the panel, only with a higher capacity. Three phase: a circuit where the main breaker switches off three poles. For most home owners this is the equivalent of having 3 separate main breakers that are divided among the circuits of the home. There are 5 wires that normally constitute a three phase line, although in many homes the three phases simply supply the main and sub panels, but continue throughout most of the home as single phase lines. In most homes there are not many devices that run on three phase electricity. However, examples may include a three phase central air conditioner, a three phase oven, a 3 phase swimming pool pump, or a large 3 phase hot water boiler.

In the United States, the air conditioners are rated in BTU. They are rated in kilowatts elsewhere. How to convert one to the other?

BTU/hour = 0.000293 KW BTU (British Thermal Unit), is a British standard unit of energy. One BTU is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree F. This is the standard measurement used normally in the western countries to measure the output of many air conditioning and heating devices. There is also a kilowatt of energy which is sometimes used instead of BTU, but this can easily be confused with the more common use of kilowatt as a unit of power (which is actually 1000 watts).

What is meant by the terms AC, DC and frequency?

Electricity is said to flow when electrons in a suitable material (a 'conductor') are induced to move in a particular direction when a suitable force (an 'electromotive force' or EMF) is applied to the material. This flow of electricity is called an electrical current and is measured in terms of amperes (usually shortened to amps). The EMF is measured in terms of volts. Direct Current (DC) electricity is the easiest to visualize because here the electrons (the electrical current) always move in the same direction. A battery is the EMF source most commonly used to produce small amounts of direct electrical current. For example, the common torch uses a battery as the EMF source. Electrical current flows from one side (e.g. the positive side) of the battery, through the element in the torch bulb (in the process heating the element to produce light) and completes the circuit back to the other side (e.g. the negative side) of the battery. Alternating Current (AC) electricity can be thought of as electricity that flows in one direction for a short period of time, then reverses its direction of flow for a short period of time, then reverses flow again, and again, and again'. Why does it do this? It's because the EMF source is not constant and changes its polarity (positive and negative sides) in a regular manner. The rate at which the electrical current changes direction through a full cycle (flows in one direction, changes direction and flows in the opposite direction then changes back to the original direction) is called its 'frequency'. In Australia and most of the rest of the world, AC electricity has a frequency of 50 cycles per second. America uses 60 cycles per second AC electricity.

What is meant by the terms AC, DC and frequency?

Electricity is said to flow when electrons in a suitable material (a 'conductor') are induced to move in a particular direction when a suitable force (an 'electromotive force' or EMF) is applied to the material. This flow of electricity is called an electrical current and is measured in terms of amperes (usually shortened to amps). The EMF is measured in terms of volts. Direct Current (DC) electricity is the easiest to visualize because here the electrons (the electrical current) always move in the same direction. A battery is the EMF source most commonly used to produce small amounts of direct electrical current. For example, the common torch uses a battery as the EMF source. Electrical current flows from one side (e.g. the positive side) of the battery, through the element in the torch bulb (in the process heating the element to produce light) and completes the circuit back to the other side (e.g. the negative side) of the battery. Alternating Current (AC) electricity can be thought of as electricity that flows in one direction for a short period of time, then reverses its direction of flow for a short period of time, then reverses flow again, and again, and again. Why does it do this? It's because the EMF source is not constant and changes its polarity (positive and negative sides) in a regular manner. The rate at which the electrical current changes direction through a full cycle (flows in one direction, changes direction and flows in the opposite direction then changes back to the original direction) is called its 'frequency'. In Australia and most of the rest of the world, AC electricity has a frequency of 50 cycles per second. America uses 60 cycles per second AC electricity.

What is meant by the term Phases?

Alternating Current (AC) electricity changes its direction of flow in a regular, cyclic manner. Because electrical current flows in response to an applied voltage, the voltage of the AC supply must also have been changing polarity from positive to negative and back again at the same frequency as the alternating current. The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen). However, the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits, making a total of three circuits. Because these circuits are electrically linked (see below), they are called phases. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i.e. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line).

WHAT IS ELECTRICITY THEFT?

Obtaining electricity without approval of utility constitutes electricity theft and is therefore illegal.

HOW ELECTRICITY THEFT AFFECTS YOU?

Please refer to the book on Power Theft

What should I do on seeing electricity Theft/Power theft?

Please report to the utility services. Or you may refer the matter to this site also which will in turn make the details available to the concerned department. This is possible only in the case of electricity Theft/Power theft.

My meter is recording too much. What should I do?

This is a common complaint. Before complaining to the utility see that no energy is wasted. For this, you may refer �Tips & Tricks of this site. There are chances of leakage of current also. This may be tested with a qualified electrician.

What is AMR& Smart Metering

Please refer to the book on Power Theft

Can electricity be produced wireless or cabless just like telephony in order to control theft of electricity?

Transmitting energy over the air which will ultimately be used as electricity to power things is possible. The only commercial application is powercast. It operates by absorbing the low RF energy transmitted from an outlet or energy source and converting that into a usable electricity. However wireless electricity will be harder to prevent theft of because of the nature of RF.

How to ask for a checking of my electricity meter? I think my bill is too high compared to the electricity actually consumed.

There are three types of checking of electricity meters: checking with a calibrator, checking without a calibrator and independent examination. The first two types are performed by electricity technicians from the company and the third one � by experts

Which is safer, Alternating Current (AC), or Direct Current (DC)?

Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) have slightly different effects on the human body, but both are dangerous above a certain voltage. The risk of injury changes according to the frequency of the AC, and it is common for DC to have an AC component (called ripple). Someone with special equipment can measure this, but the effect on a particular person is very difficult to predict as it depends upon a large number of factors. As a consequence you should always avoid contact with high voltage electrical conductors, regardless of the type of electrical current they are carrying.

How do I know if my electrical equipment is safe?

You can find out if your electrical equipment is safe by carrying out suitable checks, such as inspection and/or testing. The level of inspection and/or testing should depend upon the risks. A simple visual inspection is likely to be sufficient for equipment used in a clean dry environment. In addition, equipment that is more likely to become damaged or is operated in a harsh environment is likely to require more demanding electrical tests. Checks should be carried out often enough that there is little chance the equipment will become unsafe before the next check. It is good practice to make a decision on how often each piece of equipment should be checked, write down the decision, make sure the check is carried out, and write down the results. You should change how often you carry out checks according to the number and severity of faults found. The best way to find out if specialised equipment is safe, is to have it inspected and tested by a person with specific competence on the type of equipment. This may be the original manufacturer or his

How often should I test my electrical equipment?

Electrical equipment should be visually checked to spot early signs of damage or deterioration. Equipment should be more thoroughly tested by a competent person often enough that there is little chance that the equipment will become dangerous between tests. Equipment that is used in a harsh environment should be tested more frequently than equipment that is less likely to become damaged or unsafe. It is good practice to assess how often equipment being used for work purposes should be tested, write down your findings, make sure the testing is carried out, and write down the results of the tests.

How often should I get my electrical installation tested?

Electrical installations should be tested often enough that there is little chance of deterioration leading to danger. Any part of an installation that has become obviously defective between tests should be de-energised until the fault can be fixed.

Who should I talk to about electrical safety?

In the first instance a competent electrical contractor should be able to give advice on electrical safety, and should also be able to direct you to a suitable electrical engineer for advice about specialist areas. If you cannot get satisfactory answers

What should I do if I think someone is working unsafely?

If you think someone is working unsafely you should ask him or her to stop immediately and tell their supervisor. If you are still unhappy about how someone is working, you should contact nearest utility office.

How do I work safely near overhead lines??

It can be difficult to identify the voltage of overhead lines. So you should always assume overhead lines are dangerous when planning work near them.

What voltages are dangerous?

A wide range of voltages can be dangerous for different reasons. A very low voltage (such as that produced by a single torch battery) can produce a spark powerful enough to ignite an explosive atmosphere. Batteries (such as those in motor vehicles) can also overheat or explode if they are shorted. If a person comes into contact with a voltage above about 50 volts, they can receive a range of injuries including those directly resulting from the electrical shock (stopped breathing, heart, etc), and indirect effects resulting from loss of control (such as falling from a height or coming into contact with moving machinery). The chance of being injured by an electric shock increases where it is damp or where there is a lot of metalwork.

Why did the U.S.A. choose 120v for household current and Europe choose 220v?

It appears that the 120 was chosen somewhat arbitrarily. Edison came up with a high-resistance lamp filament he thought desirable to keep distribution losses down. In 1882, he applied for patents on a 3-wire system which gave 220v transmission with 110v lamps.

Why does US use 60 cycles and Europe use 50 cycles?

Many frequencies were used in the 19th Century for various applications, with the most prevalent being the 60 c/s supplied by Westinghouse-designed central stations for incandescent lamps. The development of a synchronous converter which operated best at 60 cycles encouraged convergence toward that standard. Around 1900, the introduction of the high-speed turbine led to settlement on two standards: 25 cycles for transmission and for large motors (this had been a compromise decision at Niagara Falls), and 60 cycles for general purpose systems. Meanwhile, in Germany, AEG -- which used 50 cycles -- had a virtual monopoly, and this standard spread to the rest of the continent. In Britain, differing frequencies proliferated, and Britain only settled on the 50 cycle standard after World War II.

The usage goes back to 1827 formulation of Ohm's law. Ohm found that the "intensity" of a current through a load is directly proportional to the emf of source driving the current.

My Electricity Bills are too high.what should I do?

This is a common complaint. Please refer the 'Tips & Tricks' of this web site and see how intelligently an optimistically the various appliances can be used?

What is PLF?

Capacity Utilization (or) Plant Load Factor: This is basically a performance index of a unit/station/utility. The ratio of the Electrical energy produced in the reference period to the maximum possible energy that could have been produced had the generating capacity been operating continuously at its maximum level during the reference period it is expressed in the percentage and is calculated as shown below. PLF =Gross hourly generation over the reference period X 100 Total hours in the reference period X generating capacity

What is EL LED? What does it signify if it glows?

The full form of EL LED is Earth Leakage Light Emitting Diode. An EL LED indicator is available on all electronic meters. If this EL LED glows it indicates an unequal current flowing through the phase and neutral wires. This mismatch can be either due to shortening of neural to earth or leakage of current to earth or that the wire of two premises are touching each other.

What is Greenhouse gases:?

Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared)radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiationand a tendency to warm the planet's surface.

What is Global warming?

An increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is today most often used to refer to the warming some scientists predict will occur as a result of increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases

What is Smart Grid?

Most of the world's electricity delivery system or 'grid' was built when energy was relatively inexpensive. While minor upgrades have been made to meet increasing demand, the grid still operates the way it did almost 100 years ago'energy flows over the grid from central power plants to consumers, and reliability is ensured by maintaining excess capacity. The result is an inefficient and environmentally wasteful system that is a major emitter of greenhouse gases, consumer of fossil fuels, and not well suited to distributed, renewable solar and wind energy sources. In addition, the grid may not have sufficient capacity to meet future demand. Several trends have combined to increase awareness of these problems, including greater recognition of climate change, commitments to reduce carbon emissions, rising fuel costs, and technology innovation. In addition, recent studies support a call for change: A new, more intelligent electric system, or �Smart Grid,� is required that combines information technology (IT) with renewable energy to significantly improve how electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. A Smart Grid provides utility companies with near-real-time information to manage the entire electrical grid as an integrated system, actively sensing and responding to changes in power demand, supply, costs, and emissions�from rooftop solar panels on homes, to remote, unmanned wind farms, to energy-intensive factories. A Smart Grid is a major advance from today, where utility companies have only basic information about how the grid is operating, with much of that information arriving too late to prevent a major power failure or blackout ( Courtesy Author Wes Frye, Director, Sustainable Energy Cisco Internet Business Solutions)

What is Base-load plant

Base-load plant Base-load power stations, largely coal-fired and nuclear, are designed to operate continuously

What is meant by combined cycle power generation?

A technology for producing electricity from otherwise lost waste heat as it exits from one or more gas (combustion) turbines

what is meant by daily peak?

The maximum amount of energy demanded in one day by electricity consumers

What is meant by Demand-side management (DSM) ?

Planning, implementing and monitoring activities to encourage consumers to use electricity more efficiently, including both the timing and level of electricity demand

What is Embedded derivative

A financial instrument that causes some or all cash flows that would otherwise be required by a contract to be modified according to a specified variable such as a currency

What is meant by sustainability performance index (ESPI)?

Index covering technical, economic, environmental and social measures to score sustainable performance

Flashover

Electrical insulation breakdown

What is Forced outage?

Shutdown of a generating unit, transmission line or other facility for emergency reasons or a condition in which generating equipment is unavailable for load due to unanticipated breakdown

Independent power producer (IPP)

Any entity, other than Discom, that owns or operates, in whole or in part, one or more independent power production facilities

Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

Basic unit of electric energy equal to one kilowatt of power supplied to or taken from an electric circuit steadily for one hour; one kilowatt-hour equals 1 000 watt-hours

What is Load management ?

Activities to influence the level and shape of demand for electrical energy so demand conforms to the present supply situation, long-term objectives and constraints

Load shifting

The transfer of loads from peak to off-peak periods; eg in situations where a utility does not expect to meet demand during peak periods but has excess capacity in off-peak periods

Load shedding

Scheduled and controlled power cuts by rotating available capacity between all customers when demand is greater than supply to avoid total blackouts in the supply area

Outage

The period in which a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility is out of service

Peak demand

Maximum power used in a given period, traditionally between 07:00 � 10:00 and 18:00 � 21:00

Peaking capacity

Generating equipment normally operated only during hours of highest daily, weekly or seasonal loads

Power pool

An association of two or more interconnected electricity supply systems that agree to co-ordinate operations and seek improved reliability and efficiencies

Pumped-storage scheme

A pumped-storage scheme consists of a lower and an upper reservoir with a power station/pumping plant between the two. During off-peak periods the reversible pump/turbines use electricity to pump water from the lower to the upper reservoir. During peak demand, water is allowed to run back into the lower reservoir through the turbines thereby generating electricity

Reserve margin

Difference between net system capability and the system�s maximum load requirements (peak load or peak demand)

Supply-side management (SSM

Planning, implementing and monitoring supply-side activities to create opportunities for cost-effective purchase, management, generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and all other associated activities

What are feed-in tariffs?

Feed-in tariffs are simply payments for generation. They are payments, or tariffs, for renewably-generated electricity and heat. They are paid to the producers for every kilowatt-hour of electricity they generate.

What are the components of Bulk Electricity tariff of Hydro Plants?

Hydro tariff means the Annual Fixed Charges (AFC) in respect of each Hydro Generating Station which is determined by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. The components of AFC are : 1. Interest on loan capital 2. Depreciation. 3. Return on equity. 4. Operation and maintenance expenses. 5. Interest on working capital. The AFC is recovered in the form of capacity charges (50% of AFC) and energy charges (50% of AFC).

How much Return on Equity is allowed to Hydro Generating Stations?

Return on Equity is allowed on pre tax basis at the base rate of 15.5%. Rate of pre tax return on equity = 15.5 (1-t) t = applicable tax rate.

What is the functionality of the pulse output of energy meter?

The pulse output sends out a proportional amount of pulses to the consumed kilowatt hours.

What are the advantages of electronic meter over a conventional electromechanical meter?

Electronic meters have the following attributes in comparison to the electro-mechanical meters: Tamper proof: - Measure accurately in various tampered conditions and also records the numbers of tampering events whereas electro mechanical meter do not record in tampered condition and may even start running in reverse direction also. More life: - More sustainable than electro mechanical meter. Current Range: - Wider current range hence; if the load of the consumer is beyond the range of meter even then the excess load can be recorded easily. Stability: - Highly stable, no drift over a long time. Wear & Tear: - solid state technology hence no wear & Tear. Power Loss: - Loss in voltage circuit is low as compared to electro mechanical meter. Safety to consumer household wiring. Provides Earth Leakage detection. Provides stored information which facilitates verification for future reference.

Will my meters change if I switch energy suppliers?

No. Your meters will not be changed in any way when you change supplier unless you request them to be.

Pelton Wheel

It is called a free-jet turbineor Pelton wheel, a type of impulse turbine, named after L. A. Pelton who invented it in 1880. Water passes through nozzles and strikes spoon-shaped buckets or cups arranged on the periphery of a runner, or wheel, which causes the runner to rotate, producing mechanical energy. The runner is fixed on a shaft, and the rotational motion of the turbine is transmitted by the shaft to a generator.

piezo-electricity

The generation of surface charges in response to applied stresses in some types of crystals. The crystalline structure produces a voltage proportional to the mechanical pressure. Conversely, when an electric field is applied, the structure changes shape producing dimensional changes in the material. A familiar piezoelectric material is quartz.

biogas

A combustible gas created by anaerobic decomposition, or fermentation, of biomass – organic material (including animal dung, human sewage, crop residues, and industrial and municipal wastes). It is composed primarily of methane (up to 60%), which is the combustible component, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Biogas is produced in an air-tight container, called an anaerobic digester, and is used as a fuel to heat stoves, lamps, run small machines, and to generate electricity. The residues of biogas production are used as a low-grade organic fertilizer. Biogas fuels do not usually cause anypollution to the atmosphere, and because they come from

British thermal unit (BTU)

The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 59.5° to 60.5°F at one atmosphere pressure. One BTU (or Btu) = 778.3 foot-pounds = 252 calories = 0.293 watt hours = 1,055 joules. BTU conversion factors for site energy are as follows: Electricity ..... 3,412 BTU/kilowatthour Natural Gas ..... 1,031 BTU/cubic foot Fuel Oil No.1 ..... 135,000 BTU/gallon Kerosene ..... 135,000 BTU/gallon Fuel Oil No.2 ..... 138,690 BTU/gallon LPG (Propane) ..... 91,330 BTU/gallon Wood ..... 20 million BTU/cord

Why do you write 'Static' in your meters ?

Because in our Meters, current and voltage act on solid state (electronic) elements to produce an output pulse frequency proportional to watt-hours

What is a DSP ?

DSPs (Digital Signal Processors) are processors whose hardware, software and instruction sets are optimized for high-speed numeric processing applications–an essential for processing digital data representing analog signals in real time.

What is MRI ?

MRI (Meter Reading Instrument) is a data collector (computer or more precisely a hand held computer), to retrieve energy consumption related datas from the Electronic Meters using optical sensors. Generally the meter reader takes MRI to the customer site and connects it to the meter. Data is transferred from the meter to the MRI. The meter reader brings the MRI to the billing station. The data is downloaded into the main billing computer of the utility board.

Smart grid – or digital grid – uses the same digital technology used in industries such as telecommunications to enable two-way communications between Energy and customers. Think of it as an energy network that delivers improved reliability and virtually unlimited opportunities for customers to take control of their energy usage and costs

What makes a smart grid different from today's grid?

It's the conversation and the functionality.

What are feed-in tariffs?

Feed-in tariffs are simply payments for generation. They are payments, or tariffs, for renewably-generated electricity and heat. They are paid to the producers for every kilowatt-hour of electricity they generate. Consider this: If you decided today to send someone a letter, would you choose a typewriter or a computer? Most people would select a computer because it's faster and provides many more options for font type and size. Today's analog grid is very similar to a typewriter with its manual operation and limited options. It was designed nearly a century ago to do one thing – deliver electricity to homes and businesses. It's a massive, dependable machine, but it provides limited information, so there is little automation and interaction. Digital technology will enable the information and control consumers need to save energy and money. It will improve and enable the integration of more renewable energy resources, while enabling more efficient and reliable electric vehicle charging. The technology will help bring the energy industry – and the resulting customer experience – into the 21st century. Think about it. In today's digital, highly connected information world, it shouldn't take 30 days for you to get information about how much energy you've used and how much it costs. By then, it's too late to take actions to help you lower your energy bill. The digital grid will make near-real time information available to you, which you can use to control your energy use and costs.

What is a 'smart meter'?

A smart meter – or digital meter – is just one part of a smart grid system. But the device is important in delivering nearly real-time information to our customers. With a digital meter on your home and supporting energy management programs, you can find out – at any time during the month – how much energy you've used from the previous day(s).

I've been reading a lot about Radio Frequency (RF) exposure from the meters. Should I be concerned??

Wireless technology is prevalent in our everyday lives. Everything from cell phones and wireless Internet routers to baby monitors and garage door openers use radio frequency to operate. In most cases, the digital electric meter is installing uses Power Line Carrier technology to send data from the meter to a communications node mounted a short distance away on an outside transformer. This set up uses a very low power radio frequency (RF) signal that actually travels along the power line as opposed to through the air. All of the digital gas meters is installing use radio frequency to transmit information, however; the exposure from this low power RF signal is well below the exposure limits the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has established for the general public. Recent studies conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Edison Electric Institute (EEI), Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (AEIC) and the Utilities Telecom Association (UTC) conclude that digital smart meters pose no health threats.

Dominican Power Sector Reveals Losses

Santo Domingo, Jan 17 (Prensa Latina) At least 500.000 homes in Dominican Republic receive electricity without paying the service, which generated losses of $ 50 million USD per month, revealed an official document released today. According to the Performance Report of the Dominican Corporation of Electrical State Companies, 40 percent of the electricity the government buys to generators plants is lost or not billed. The above mentioned properties are not registered as formal users because they are illegally connected to the laying, highlights the text. This problem, whose solution according to the authorities needs an investment of $ 800 million USD, affects those who regularly pay the service as the energy price increases to offset losses. Hipolito Nunez, administrator of the Electricity Distribution Company (EDESUR), beleives electric theft can not be solved with a magic wand and proposes a measurement plan that allows to have energy balances for every place.Source-Prensa latina

Rs 1.44 crore fine for power theft

PATNA: To check power theft, Bihar State Power (Holding) Distribution Company Limited (BSPDCL), in recent weeks, conducted several raids in various parts of the state and lodged hundreds of FIRs against defaulters. It earned Rs 1.44 crore by imposing fine on the defaulters between April 1 and 9. South Bihar Power Distribution Company Limited (SBPDCL) has lodged 244 FIRs and imposed fine to the tune of Rs 1.07 crore between April 1-9. Magadh division topped the list of defaulters, with 112 FIRs being filed and Rs 37.13 lakh realized by way of fine. Even in the area under Patna Electric Supply Undertaking (Pesu), 29 FIRs were lodged and a fine of Rs 19.09 lakh was imposed during this period. The fine imposed was lower during the raids conducted by North Bihar Power Distribution Company Limited (NBPDCL). FIRs were lodged against 131 power consumers and Rs 37.49 lakh was realized as fine. Purnia supply division topped the list of defaulters with NBPDCL realizing a fine of Rs 12.3 lakh. Raids were also conducted in Muzaffarpur supply division (Rs 4 lakh realized), Motihari (Rs 5.72 lakh), Chhapra (Rs 9.45 lakh), Darbhanga (Rs 8.49 lakh), Samastipur (Rs 41,000) and Saharsa (Rs 3.42 lakh) during this period.\ In order to put the main holding company, BSPHCL, on the track, both the distribution companies have pulled up their socks to minimize power theft. Recently, Bihar chief secretary had also directed its officials to check power theft at the district level. Divisional commissioners and DMs have been asked to monitor it on a weekly basis. Documents available with TOI show that in March, a total of 244 FIRs were lodged and a fine of Rs 6.16 crore was imposed on the defaulters by the SBPDCL.SOURCE-TIMES OF INDIA

Power demand growing three-times the supply

LUCKNOW: A serious power crisis looms over the city with the demand touching 900 MW against an average power availability around 600 MW.The situation could only worsen if the demand swells to 1800 MW, which is the actual load sanctioned in the city. In that case, the city will reach a situation where the supply is virtually a third of the city's total demand. If the government is unable to strengthen the supply mechanism, this will result in prolonged power cuts through official and unofficial rostering in the days to come. According to sources, the peak demand for Lucknow touched around 1200 MW last year. The annual rate of increase in demand has been around 10%. As a result, this year the demand in the state capital is likely to go up to around 1,400 MW. Officials say this is only the restricted demand, which excludes the technical snags. Engineers from Lesa also confirmed they are forced to resort to rostering to prevent the system from undergoing a complete collapse. The dismal situation can be attributed to the poor quality of infrastructure, poorly laid underground cables and bad quality transformers have compounded the acute power crisis in the state capital as well as other districts. In addition, the sustained power pilferage, which amounts to around 30% of the total power supplied, also serves as an impediment for the power authorities. Though chief engineer of Lucknow Electricity Supply Administration, Mayank Singhal, refused to comment, UP Power Corporation Limited, managing director AP Mishra said the state capital will not be subjected to rostering. "There may be some technical snags, but we are trying to provide as much as possible power to the residents," Mishra said, while talking to TOI. Raising the concern of people consuming more than the sanctioned load, Mishra did say, however, that this is a contributing factor to the impending power crisis in the state. "This is somehow balanced by big consumers, who have a large sanctioned load but consume less," he said. The present demand of around 900 MW is being managed, they said, by rostering in the Malihabad, Mohanlalganj and Mall tehsils. President of UP Rajya Vidyut Upbhogta Parishad, AK Verma said the existing power distribution system needs to be improved for a proper supply. He also said Lucknow's existing system can only handle up to 1,200 MW of power. "This will naturally result in power cuts that are uncalled for," Verma said. UPPCL officials said that the situation is also likely to worsen because of a poor transmission system. Though the state capital has several new transmission sub-stations of 220 KV capacity constructed in places like Kursi Road, Hardoi Road bypass and Navi-Kot-Nandana, they have still not been made functional. In some cases, in fact, the poles between the wires have to be laid, have not been erected.SOURCE-TIMES OF INDIA

Large scale power theft in Punjab

The Punjab State Power Corporation Limited (PSPCL) detected a large scale power theft following a raid conducted at the low income group (LIG) flats, located near the Maqboolpura area, on Mehta Road here today. Eyebrows were also raised as sources alleged that such a large scale power theft could not possible without the involvement of an insider. The raid was conducted following a tip off that a large scale power theft was being committed at the LIG flats, which are illegally occupied by unknown inhabitants. According to sources in the Powercom there were only 57 legal power connections in hundreds of flats in the area. A large number of people have been living illegally in these flats, besides drawing power through kundi connections from the main supply line. The PSPCL team disconnected these connections and confiscated huge bundles of wires. Highly placed sources in the PSPCL said four teams of the Enforcement and Operation wings along with city circle staff were deputed to conduct raids from different sides so that no power thief could escape. “We are astonished to see such large scale power theft here. This has sent alarm bells ringing in the department,” said an official while preferring not to be named. He said there were approximately four hundred flats near the Maqboolpura area, but it had only 57 legal power connections. “This means that a large number of inhabitants are using kundi connections to draw power,” he added. Officials of the PSPCL found residents of 70 flats involved in the power theft. The raiding party also found a number of flats locked, which further raised the suspicion that their inhabitants might have got information of the raid. However, another official contended that these flats were not inhabited. The official said they were still calculating the amount of power theft and the fine which would be imposed on the offenders. The raids continued for around three hours. Varinder Pal Singh Saini, superintending engineer (enforcement), said he was yet to receive the report compiled by the staff. He said as soon as he gets the report, action would be taken accordingly.[The tribune]